Winter Fire – And Our Mother’s Cried | Where are They? | The Worst Way to Start a City

“And Our Mothers Cried” vividly brings to life the Indian boarding school era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For several generations of Native American children, including some Chickasaws, attending boarding school meant separation from their families and indoctrination into a culture that wasn’t their own. The schools, which were guided by the infamous slogan, “Kill the Indian. Save the Man,” prohibited most students from speaking their own language and emphasized labor-intensive trades that would assimilate them into white culture through military-type institutions.

The documentary presents a stark contrast between these schools and schools established and operated by the Chickasaw Nation, which were designed to prepare Chickasaw children to compete in a rapidly changing world. “And Our Mothers Cried” presents compelling stories from some of the Chickasaw elders who lived through the boarding school era. Their experiences weave a complex story of sorrow and survival, but also one of hope and resilience from a time when tribal governments and culture were under attack.

Click here to watch the EMMY® Award-winning “Winter Fire—And Our Mothers Cried.”

Source: Chickasaw Nation Documentary Wins Heartland Emmy Award – Native News Online

Where are they?

Last Year:

On June 15, 2017, at its Mid‐Year Conference in Connecticut, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) adopted a resolution, sponsored by the Chickasaw Nation, encouraging American Indian and Alaska Native Tribal Nations, families, and descendants to provide information on children who never returned home from Indian Boarding Schools.

The information will be used for a submission to the United Nations (UN) Working Group on Enforced and Involuntary Disappearances (UNWGEID). This UN submission will be jointly filed by the National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition (NABS), the International Indian Treaty Council (IITC), and the Native American Rights Fund (NARF). The submission will call on the United States to provide a full accounting of the children taken into government custody under the U.S. Indian Boarding School Policy whose fate and whereabouts remain unknown. NCAI represents 250 American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes.

For more information on the US Boarding School policies, their ongoing legacies, and using UN human rights bodies to defend the rights of Indigenous Peoples, log on to,, and

READ: US Tribes Call for Testimonies on Missing American Indian & Alaska Native Boarding School Children – Native News Online


The Unassigned Lands

In the 1860s and 1870s, white settlers from the areas around Indian Territory — like Kansas and Texas — started to realize that there was vast piece of land in the middle of the United States that wasn’t claimed by anyone (ah, what?). They started agitating to to be allowed to seize this land for free. These white settlers even began a series of illegal raids into the territory, sneaking into Indian Territory at night to get to that little center portion of the Unassigned Lands.

Couch and his men had brought surveying equipment — and they quickly began laying out streets and lots as they had planned them in the months leading up to the Land Run. In the days following Oklahoma City’s rapid settlement, town leaders would have to reckon with all the cheating that had happened during the Land Run. Who cheated and who didn’t? Who deserve to keep their land and who didn’t?

GOOD LISTEN: The Worst Way to Start a City – 99% Invisible


Hunting down runaway slaves: The cruel ads of Andrew Jackson and ‘the master class’ | Osage Murders

A historian collecting thousands of runaway slave ads describes them as “the tweets of the master class” in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Source: Hunting down runaway slaves: The cruel ads of Andrew Jackson and ‘the master class’ – The Washington Post

Osage Murders for Oil

The Osage tribe in Oklahoma became spectacularly wealthy in the early 1900s — and then members started turning up dead. David Grann’s Killers of the Flower Moon describes the dark plot against them.

LISTEN: In The 1920s, A Community Conspired To Kill Native Americans For Their Oil Money : NPR






Inmates: Masonic Orphanage: Oklahoma 1920

Masonic Orphanage Residents at Darlington, Canadian County from 1920 Census
An orphanage was established at Darlington by the Masons in 1910 when they bought 672 acres and 
the buildings of the Darlington complex, in Canadian County, which had previously been an Indian Agency.  
The orphanage was in operation until 1922.  Below are the residents 
whom were listed as "inmates" by the census)who lived in the Masonic orphanage at
Darlington at the time of the 1920 census.  Of course, please keep in mind this list is only a 
representation of the residents for the year 1920 and does not include everyone who ever
lived there.  (Another possible source for more names,  I understand, is the El Reno American
newspaper, July 8, 1910 issue which is supposed to have a list of the residents for that time period. 
However,  I do not have that article currently.)  
After the orphanage closed, the Darlington complex was turned into what was termed a
narcotic farm", which was an institution for recovering narcotics.  This institution, however,
did not last very long.  A controversial newspaper article about the narcotic farm caused it to be 
closed shortly after its doors were opened.             
Below, the first column in the orphanage list is the name of an individual whom resided at the 
orphanage, followed by sex and age of the person. 
Next will be the site of the person's birth, the site of that individual's father's birth, and lastly the 
site of the mother's birth.  Many of the residents had "US" listed as place of birth in the various 
slots, rather than a state or "unknown".  
Some of the people who are listed were apparently workers or lodgers in the orphanage.  A few other 
people are listed as "inmates" but they are well above the typical age of orphans. There was no 
explanation given on the census for this.  I have taken the liberty to put the list in alphabetical 
order to make it easier to use.  
             Submitted by Andie Stringfellow | E-mail:

             1920 Census of the Masonic Orphanage at Darlington,Canadian County, Oklahoma
             Allen, Carlton W.  (inmate)   M   12    OK   US   US
             Allen, Flossie M.  (inmate)    F   16     OK    MO   TX
             Armstrong, Albert   M    36      MO     IA      MO
                ?Momonan (wife) F    28       IL      IL      England
                Nellie M. (dau)     F    12       OK    MO     IL
                Ralph W. (son)     M    9        OK    MO    IL
                Glenn A.  (son)     M    5        OK    MO    IL
                Niles Edward (son) M   4       OK    MO    IL
             Bagley, Andrew S.   (inmate)    M   8   TX   US   US
             Bagley, Willie E.  (inmate)    F 11    OK    Unknown Unknown
             Bagley, Woodrow W.  (inmate)   M   5    TX    US   US
             Beller, Elsie (inmate)   F   12    OK   Unknown    Unknown
             Beller, Lloyd  (inmate)    M   7   OK   US   US
             Beller, Lola (inmate)   F   5     OK    Unknown   Unknown
             Beller, Luther  (inmate)   M   2-5/12th   OK   US    US
             Bennett, William  (inmate)   M 71    ?Wales    Wales    Wales
             Bollen, Neva (inmate)    F 12   OK   TX    TX
             Bollen, Velma (inmate)   F   15    OK   TX    TX
             Butler, James C.   (inmate) M   62     ?    KY    MO
             C-??-fill, Jesse H.   (inmate) M   14    OK    US   US
             Caldwell, Wiley A.  (inmate)    M   17    OK   MO   US
             Caton, Johnie Bell (inmate)   F 15    AR    US   Unknown
             Caton, M K.   (inmate)   M   8    OK    US   US
             Choate, Dessie C. (inmate)      F 67    TN    TN    TN
             Choate, Josephine M.  (inmate) F 14    TX   TN    TN  
             ?Cornwell, Ethel A.  (inmate)    F   30    KS   IL   IL
             ?Covey, Paul    (inmate)    M   12   OK   US    US  
             Davis, Anna (inmate)   F   14    OK   KY   IL
             Davis, Benson (inmate) M 88   VA    VA    VA
             Disney, Doris (inmate) F   13    KS   US   US
             Disney, Marion L. (inmate)   F 15   KY US   US
             Dorman, Kathleen       F 24      TX         IL          TN
             Edwards, Charles   (inmate)   M 8   OK   US   US
             Edwards, Lloyd   (inmate)    M   12    OK   US   US
             Edwards, Maude (inmate)   F 14    OK    US   US
             Finney, Helen M.  (inmate)   F   9    OK   OH   AR
             Finney, Lonie E.     F    28     AR   TN    OH
             Finney, Ralph N.   (inmate)    M   ?   OK    OH    AR
             Fletcher, Anna (inmate)    F   12    OK    OK   TX
             Fletcher, Nina Lee (inmate) F 15    OK   OK   TX
             Fletcher, Thomas  (inmate)   M   10   OK   OK   TX
             Flippin, Frank M.    M   29    TX      TX    TX
                Stella (wife)         F    ?      TX      TN    ?
               Andrew (son)       M    9      TX       TX    TX
                Frederick (son)   M   7       TX       TX    TX
                Mary (dau)          F    5       TX       TX    TX
                Jay (son)             M   3       TX       TX    TX
             Freeman, Charles H. (inmate) M   79     VA   Ireland   Ireland
             Garren, Lafayette (lodger)   M   69   AL   NC   GA
             Garvin, Joseph  (inmate)   M   10   OK   US   US
             Gibson, Wallace   (inmate)    M   16    OK   US   US
             Gouger, James H.    (inmate)    M   10    OK   TN   AR
             Gouger, Mary R.  (inmate)   F   15   OK   TN US
             Gray, Lee  (inmate)    M   69       ?   NY   OH
             Grist, Inez   (inmate)     F   13    OK US   US
             Grist, ?Payte    (inmate)    M   12    OK   US   US
             Harrison, Curtis   (inmate)    M    9   OK   US   US   
             Harrison, Irma (inmate) F   15   OK   US   US
             Harrison, Verl (inmate) F   12   OK    US   US
             Hendrix, Marion W.   (inmate)   M   12   OK   US   US
             Hendrix, Mary Jane (inmate)   F 17   OK   MO   KY
             Hendrix, Ora M.  (inmate)   M   9    OK   US   US
             Howard, Dossie  (inmate)    M   11    OK   US   US
             Howard, George D.    (inmate)   M   10   OK   US   US
             Howard, Joseph P.  (inmate)   M 8   OK   US   US
             Hudson, Dolar D.  (inmate)   M   10   OK   MO     KY
             Hudson, Varney D.  (inmate)   M   12    OK   MO   KY
             Hudson, ?Velvia D. (inmate) F   16   OK MO    KY
             Hudson, Verney L.  (inmate)   M 12   OK   MO   KY
             Humphrey, James E.  (inmate)   M   56   ?    NY   NY
             Hutchins, William F.  (inmate)   M 9   AR   US   US
             Jenkins, William H.    M 36     England     England     England
                Ida M. (wife)            F 36     England      England     England
                Ruth P. (dau)           F 8      IN                England     England
             Johnson, Ruby (lodger)   F    28    TX       MS           MS
             Joseph, M. (inmate)    M   51     OH    OH    PA
             Kelley, Nellie L. M.    (inmate)   F   11    OK   AR   OK
             Lambright, Forrest  (inmate)   M 10 OK   US   US
             Lambright, Lee C.   (inmate)   M 12   OK   US   US
             Lambright, Simeon   (inmate)    M   8   OK  US   US
             Lambright, William  (inmate)   M   13   OK   US   US
             Lees, Arch  (inmate)   M 12   OK   IN   US
             Lees, John  (inmate)   M 17   MO   IN   US
             Lewis, Jerome (inmate) M   61     KY    Wales     Wales
             ?Lowe, Mattie (inmate)    F   11      OK   OK    OK
             ?Lowe, Nellie (inmate) F   14    OK     OK     OK
             Lowry, Beth (lodger)        F      19   OK      WI          WI
             ?Macomber, Judson  (inmate)   M   69   NY Scotland Scotland
             Maupin, ?Carlo/?Carl  (inmate) M 6   OK   US   US
             Maupin, Gabril   (inmate)   M   8   OK   US    US
             Maupin, Gilbert O.   (inmate)    M 11   OK   US   US
             Maupin, ?Jimmie/?Jemmes  (inmate)   M   4-1/12th OK   US  
             McMillan, Carl  (inmate)    M 15   OK   US   US
             McMillan, Joseph   (inmate)   M 17 OK   US   US
             ?Mison, Gabriel A.     M   44     SC    VA    SC
                Robirder (wife)        F    33     TN    TN     TN
                (This entry had an entry that he was black and she was
             Moore, Kate (inmate)    F    73    MO    IN   IL
             Moretti, Amenta F.   (inmate) F 8    KS    Italy   Spain
             Moretti, John   (inmate)   M   5   OK   Italy Spain
             Moretti, Joseph   (inmate)   M 12   PA   Italy Spain
             Moretti, Mabel R. K.  (inmate) F   14    ME   Italy   Spain
             Moretti, William  (inmate)   M 7   KS   Italy   Spain
             Morris, Helen (inmate) F   16   OK    US   US
             Morris, Joseph T.  (inmate)   M 17  OK   US     US 
             Morris, Robert  (inmate)   M 12   OK   US   US
             Neal, ?Lena/?Lona/?Lana M.  (inmate)   F   11    OK   US   US
             Neal, ?Oprah/?Opal   (inmate)   F   8   OK   US   US
             Neal, Ora  (inmate)   M    6    OK   US    US
             Paine, Allie N.  (inmate) F   8    OK   US   US
             Payne, John A.    M   30      IL    OH    IL
                Sarah A. (wife)    F   29    KS    MO   MO
                Waverly H. (son) M    8    OK   IL      KS
             Payne, ?Nellie (lodger)    F     24   OK       IL            MO
             Perdue, Florence (inmate) F   3-7/12th OK   US   US
             Perdue, Lawrence A.  (inmate)   M   4-9/12th OK  US   US  
             Porter, James M.  (inmate) M   78   PA   PA   PA
             Robinson, Lela  (inmate) F   8   OK   US   US
             Robinson, Reba  (inmate) F   16   OK   US   US
             Robinson, Tela  (inmate) F   10 OK   US   US
             Sartor, Elmer L.  (inmate)   M   13   AR MS   MS
             Sartor, Guy C.  (inmate)   M   15    AR   MS   MS
             Sartor, Thomas E.  (inmate)   M 8   AR   MS   MS
             Sater, George R. (inmate)    M   63      OH    OH     OH
             Schweickhardt, William C.  (inmate)   M   8   KS US   US
             Shuler, Kate (ass't matron)   F   26   OK    GA   TN
             Skillman, Loretta  (inmate)   F   13   OK   US   US
             Skillman, Rosalee  (inmate) F   16   OK   US   US
             Sloan, Docie M.  (inmate)    M   12   OK   US   US
             Smith, Nana B.  (inmate) F   17   OK   TN     OK
             Smith, Robert E.  (inmate)    M 77   IL   TN TN
             Smith, Roy E.  (inmate)   M 12   OK  TN   US
             Stahl, Samuel D. (clerk) M 59   ?IL   PA   PA
             Strickland, James E.  (inmate)   M 12   OK   US US
             Strickland, Mamie B.  (inmate) F 14   OK   US   US
             Strickland, Richard   (inmate)    M   9   OK   US   US
             Strickland, William R.  (inmate) M 16   OK   US   US
             Sturgis, Jessie L. M.  (inmate)    F   13   OK   US   US
             Travis, Sarah (head matron)   F   53     TX   MS    KY
             Turman, Harry L.  (inmate)   M 11   OK   US   US
             Turner, James E.    M   64      TN    TN     TN
                Mary (wife)           F    ?        AR    NC    AL
                James W. (son)   M    8        TX    TN     AR
                Woodrow (son)    M 4-11/12th   TX    TN    AR
             Valentine, Anna M.  (inmate)    F   16   OK   US   US
             Walton, Florence (lodger) F 20    OK    OH     MO
             Weir, Arthur J.    M 52     Scotland     Scotland     Scotland
                Ida M. (wife)     F 50     WI              NY              Canada. 
             Williams, Rachel (inmate)   F   69    MO    IN     OH
             Womack, Maude  (inmate)   F ?16    OK    AR    AR
             Womack, Ruth  (inmate)      F   ?   OK   AR    AR
             Zumwalt, Cora   F    42    TX   TX    TX   
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The Cherokee Word for Water

The Cherokee Word for Water is a feature length motion picture that tells the story of the work in the Bell Community that lead Wilma Mankiller to become the first modern female Chief of the Cherokee Nation.

This film is dedicated to the memory of Wilma Mankiller, Johnson Soap, the Bell Community and the contributions and potential of Indian people everywhere.

I was blessed to meet Wilma more than once…I am grateful for this woman and her leadership…Trace

Post-tornado peril: Victims could face deadly fungal infections

(CDC) The Mucor fungus was responsible for infections that sickened 13 patients, including five who died, after a 2011 tornado in Joplin, Mo. Health officials are urging Oklahoma doctors to be on the alert for similar infections after Monday’s twister.

Doctors treating victims hurt badly in Monday’s devastating Moore, Okla., tornado should be alert for a rare but deadly complication of wind-whipped debris: fungal infections like those that killed five people after the Joplin, Mo., twister in 2011.

That’s the word from government experts in fungal infections, who documented 13 serious cases of necrotizing cutaneous mucormycosis — terrible soft tissue infections — after the Joplin tornado, including instances when visible mold started growing from the patients’ wounds.

“We want to encourage clinicians to be aware that these infections can happen,” said Dr. Benjamin Park, chief epidemiologist with the mycotic diseases branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

It’s not yet clear whether any fungal infections are suspected in the victims of this week’s disaster. In Joplin, it took five days for the first infections to show up; within 10 days, 10 patients had been identified.

“In the chaos of everything, it’s very hard,” said Dr. Gary Wells, medical director for the Norman Regional Health System emergency department, who was at the initial triage site during Monday’s storm. “It is something you keep in the back of your mind.”

Early detection and diagnosis are key to treating the infections, which occur when molds usually found in dirt, decaying wood and other matter become airborne during a heavy storm.

“When they are picked up out of their natural environment and injected into the skin, we’re always concerned about infection,” Park said.

The molds can contaminate the wounds that occur after the blunt trauma, fractures and penetrating injuries common in tornadoes. The resulting infections can lead to serious illness and death. “The case fatality rate can be very high — 50 percent,” Park noted.

The Joplin tornado struck at 5:34 p.m. on May 22, 2011, a monster of a storm rated EF-5, with winds exceeding 200 miles per hour on the Enhanced Fujita Scale used to measure tornadoes. More than 1,000 people were hurt and 162 died.

The Moore tornado was upgraded to an EF-5 late Tuesday. At least 24 deaths and 237 injuries have been reported. The injuries are typical of tornadoes: crush injuries, impalements and major cuts, according to NBC’s Dr. Nancy Snyderman, who spoke to trauma officials in Oklahoma.

Doctors and other health workers have been swamped caring for the victims, so it’s not clear what steps they’re taking to detect or treat potential fungal infections.

“I’m not sure that they’ve gotten that far yet,” said Pamela Williams, spokeswoman for the Oklahoma Department of Health.

The need for vigilance is clear, according to a 2012 review of the Joplin infections published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Skin-related Mucormycosis infections have been reported after other natural disasters, including a 1985 volcanic eruption in Colombia and after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.

“The risk of complex wounds with foreign-body contamination during natural disasters is high, and wound management can pose considerable clinical challenge in post-disaster settings, especially when the local health care infrastructure has been damaged,” wrote authors from the CDC.