I’m reading: Native American Cultural Appropriation Is a War of Meaning | Sioux Chef | Woven Tale Press | Mr. Hornaday’s War | Rape Culture

You may want to read them. I did! xox Lara Trace

FACE?

Such is the case with FACE, an F.B.I. program described in a new, blistering report from the United States Government Accountability Office. FACE stands for Facial Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation, the name of a relatively new unit within the agency. The G.A.O. found that the F.B.I. has been disregarding some of even the most basic privacy protections and standards. Keep Reading

 

Appropriation?

Excerpt:

In Indian country, there is a saying that being Indian is not about what you claim, but who claims you.

Dan Snyder’s grandstanding about the offensive team name is a joke that would be funny if it weren’t so serious for what it means to U.S. American national culture and how it contributes to the common misunderstandings of average Americans. In our upcoming book, “All the Real Indians Died Off” and 20 Other Myths about Native Americans, Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz and I devote two entire chapters to the controversies surrounding appropriation of Native American cultures.  We discuss the Washington Redsk*ns team name in depth and the broader topic of Native American team mascots in one chapter, and in another we tackle other facets of appropriation including Halloween costumes, spirituality, and identity.  Look for the book’s release this October. (TOP PHOTO)

About the Author 

image from www.beaconbroadside.comDina Gilio-Whitaker (Colville Confederated Tribes) is an independent writer and researcher in Indigenous studies, having earned a bachelor’s degree in Native American Studies and a master’s degree in American Studies from the University of New Mexico, and also holds the position of research associate and associate scholar at the Center for World Indigenous Studies. Her work focuses on issues related to Indigenous nationalism, self-determination, and environmental justice, and more recently the emerging field of critical surf studies. She is a co-author (with Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz) of the forthcoming book from ‘All the Real Indians Died Off’ and 20 Other Myths about Native Americans. An award-winning journalist, she is a frequent contributor to Indian Country Today Media Network and Native Peoples Magazine. Follow her on Twitter at @DinaGWhit and visit her website.

via Native American Cultural Appropriation Is a War of Meaning – Beacon Broadside: A Project of Beacon Press

 

************

Creative and Tasty Lakota Food?? HECK YEAH!

Sean Sherman, who opened a business called The Sioux Chef this fall, is an enrolled member of the Oglala Lakota tribe and grew up on Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.

 

READ THIS INTERVIEW

 

 

 

***************

Art, Coffee, Tea and Blogs

Woven Tale Press: Art, Coffee, Tea and Blogs

After coming across this first link from the Google Cultural Institute, I thought I’d take a look at some interesting art this time.

https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-camera

The ultra definition in these works is incredible. Working with museums around the world, Google has used its Art Camera system to capture the finest details of artworks from their collection.


Next up is a unique way to work with color. And if you have the money, yeah I know I’m talking to artists, go here. If not enjoy the link

James Turrell Allowing Limited Visitors to Roden Crater for $6,500 a Person


This past month I was sidelined from working for awhile so I had the time to explore and download a new library of art catalogs. Create your own library from this extensive list.

http://www.openculture.com/2015/03/download-422-free-art-books-from-the-metropolitan-museum-of-art.html


This article is a bit older but the voices in it are more than worth listening to. so enjoy what women artists have to say across a number of generations.

Women in the Art World


Mr. Hornaday’s War: The Return of the Buffalo

…But Hornaday, always quirky, difficult, and relentlessly persistent, did not stop there. He’d always been a man who loved a good fight (he even fought with his friends), so he went to war on behalf of the bison. As time went on, Hornaday became one of the noisiest, angriest, and most unstoppable conservationists of his day, second only to his friend and colleague Theodore Roosevelt. He was the founder of the National Zoo in Washington, and for thirty years served as director of the Bronx Zoo—sorry, he hated that name, insisting on “The New York Zoological Park”—a soapbox from which he lectured, cajoled, lambasted, and wheedled the American public, the Congress, and anybody else who would listen about the alarming state of the “the grandest quadruped [he had] ever seen.” He also initiated captive breeding programs at the zoo, to see if it were possible, first, and if so, to rebuild the perilously depleted population. With Roosevelt, Hornaday created the American Bison Society, dedicated to bison conservation. And he began fighting to create wild reserves in the west, to give the buffalo a place to roam should their numbers recover.

In his “spare time,” Hornaday also wrote a raft of books about zoology and conservation, fought lax game laws and gun manufacturers, and became a major player in the “Plume Wars” against feathered hat dealers, who were ravaging rookeries in the Everglades and other wild places. He was a vigilante for justice for the animals, a political agitator for the natural world, a man who never knew how to keep quiet in the face of what he considered to be a monstrous crime in progress.  Keep Reading

***

RAPE CULTURE – I have no words to add… read this…

For most of human history, women and children have been treated as possessions of men—as economic assets, trophies, slave labor, and objects of sexual gratification—rather than full persons with preferences and rights, starting with control of our own bodies. This view is so deeply embedded in culture that the concept of sexual consent is wholly absent from the Bible, which continues to profoundly shape modern culture. In Bible texts, virgin females are given in marriage by their fathers, traded as slaves, kept as war booty, and sold as damaged goods to men who have raped them.  The Quran is no better.  This month, Pakistan’s Council of Islamic Ideology proposed legislation giving men the legal right to beat their wives “lightly,” as taught by the Prophet.  A teen who turned down a marriage proposal was tortured and then burned alive by the family of the rejected man, who felt entitled to her. KEEP READING

**********

That’s what I’m reading and processing. How about you?

Stolen Generations is here

See you next week… Lara/Trace

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

I'm reading: Native American Cultural Appropriation Is a War of Meaning | Sioux Chef | Woven Tale Press | Mr. Hornaday’s War | Rape Culture

You may want to read them. I did! xox Lara Trace

FACE?

Such is the case with FACE, an F.B.I. program described in a new, blistering report from the United States Government Accountability Office. FACE stands for Facial Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation, the name of a relatively new unit within the agency. The G.A.O. found that the F.B.I. has been disregarding some of even the most basic privacy protections and standards. Keep Reading

 

Appropriation?

Excerpt:

In Indian country, there is a saying that being Indian is not about what you claim, but who claims you.

Dan Snyder’s grandstanding about the offensive team name is a joke that would be funny if it weren’t so serious for what it means to U.S. American national culture and how it contributes to the common misunderstandings of average Americans. In our upcoming book, “All the Real Indians Died Off” and 20 Other Myths about Native Americans, Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz and I devote two entire chapters to the controversies surrounding appropriation of Native American cultures.  We discuss the Washington Redsk*ns team name in depth and the broader topic of Native American team mascots in one chapter, and in another we tackle other facets of appropriation including Halloween costumes, spirituality, and identity.  Look for the book’s release this October. (TOP PHOTO)

About the Author 

image from www.beaconbroadside.comDina Gilio-Whitaker (Colville Confederated Tribes) is an independent writer and researcher in Indigenous studies, having earned a bachelor’s degree in Native American Studies and a master’s degree in American Studies from the University of New Mexico, and also holds the position of research associate and associate scholar at the Center for World Indigenous Studies. Her work focuses on issues related to Indigenous nationalism, self-determination, and environmental justice, and more recently the emerging field of critical surf studies. She is a co-author (with Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz) of the forthcoming book from ‘All the Real Indians Died Off’ and 20 Other Myths about Native Americans. An award-winning journalist, she is a frequent contributor to Indian Country Today Media Network and Native Peoples Magazine. Follow her on Twitter at @DinaGWhit and visit her website.

via Native American Cultural Appropriation Is a War of Meaning – Beacon Broadside: A Project of Beacon Press

 

************

Creative and Tasty Lakota Food?? HECK YEAH!

Sean Sherman, who opened a business called The Sioux Chef this fall, is an enrolled member of the Oglala Lakota tribe and grew up on Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.

 

READ THIS INTERVIEW

 

 

 

***************

Art, Coffee, Tea and Blogs

Woven Tale Press: Art, Coffee, Tea and Blogs

After coming across this first link from the Google Cultural Institute, I thought I’d take a look at some interesting art this time.

https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-camera

The ultra definition in these works is incredible. Working with museums around the world, Google has used its Art Camera system to capture the finest details of artworks from their collection.


Next up is a unique way to work with color. And if you have the money, yeah I know I’m talking to artists, go here. If not enjoy the link

James Turrell Allowing Limited Visitors to Roden Crater for $6,500 a Person


This past month I was sidelined from working for awhile so I had the time to explore and download a new library of art catalogs. Create your own library from this extensive list.

http://www.openculture.com/2015/03/download-422-free-art-books-from-the-metropolitan-museum-of-art.html


This article is a bit older but the voices in it are more than worth listening to. so enjoy what women artists have to say across a number of generations.

Women in the Art World


Mr. Hornaday’s War: The Return of the Buffalo

…But Hornaday, always quirky, difficult, and relentlessly persistent, did not stop there. He’d always been a man who loved a good fight (he even fought with his friends), so he went to war on behalf of the bison. As time went on, Hornaday became one of the noisiest, angriest, and most unstoppable conservationists of his day, second only to his friend and colleague Theodore Roosevelt. He was the founder of the National Zoo in Washington, and for thirty years served as director of the Bronx Zoo—sorry, he hated that name, insisting on “The New York Zoological Park”—a soapbox from which he lectured, cajoled, lambasted, and wheedled the American public, the Congress, and anybody else who would listen about the alarming state of the “the grandest quadruped [he had] ever seen.” He also initiated captive breeding programs at the zoo, to see if it were possible, first, and if so, to rebuild the perilously depleted population. With Roosevelt, Hornaday created the American Bison Society, dedicated to bison conservation. And he began fighting to create wild reserves in the west, to give the buffalo a place to roam should their numbers recover.

In his “spare time,” Hornaday also wrote a raft of books about zoology and conservation, fought lax game laws and gun manufacturers, and became a major player in the “Plume Wars” against feathered hat dealers, who were ravaging rookeries in the Everglades and other wild places. He was a vigilante for justice for the animals, a political agitator for the natural world, a man who never knew how to keep quiet in the face of what he considered to be a monstrous crime in progress.  Keep Reading

***

RAPE CULTURE – I have no words to add… read this…

For most of human history, women and children have been treated as possessions of men—as economic assets, trophies, slave labor, and objects of sexual gratification—rather than full persons with preferences and rights, starting with control of our own bodies. This view is so deeply embedded in culture that the concept of sexual consent is wholly absent from the Bible, which continues to profoundly shape modern culture. In Bible texts, virgin females are given in marriage by their fathers, traded as slaves, kept as war booty, and sold as damaged goods to men who have raped them.  The Quran is no better.  This month, Pakistan’s Council of Islamic Ideology proposed legislation giving men the legal right to beat their wives “lightly,” as taught by the Prophet.  A teen who turned down a marriage proposal was tortured and then burned alive by the family of the rejected man, who felt entitled to her. KEEP READING

**********

That’s what I’m reading and processing. How about you?

Stolen Generations is here

See you next week… Lara/Trace

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

What I am reading: Simon Moya-Smith and Opinionated Man

Simon Moya-Smith: Pope Francis must offer more than apology

A statue of Junipero Serra with an Indian boy. Photo by Anatoly Terentiev / Wikipedia

Simon Moya-Smith, a member of the Oglala Sioux Tribe, calls on Pope Francis to repeal the church edicts that have been used to justify the taking of Indian lands:

Fifteen years ago, Pope John Paul II apologized for hundreds of years of violence and subjugation that the indigenous peoples of the Americas suffered at the hands of Catholics. Pope Francis, speaking in Bolivia, followed this up in July by expressing remorse over the cruelty committed against the indigenous peoples of the Americas. “I say this to you with regret: Many grave sins were committed against the native people of America in the name of God,” he said. “I humbly ask forgiveness, not only for the offense of the church herself, but also for crimes committed against the native peoples during the so-called conquest of America.” So why is he set to canonize someone whose actions would seem to fly in the face of such encouraging words? This week, during his first visit to the United States, the Pope is expected to canonize 18th-century Franciscan Friar Junipero Serra, who arrived in 1769 and founded nine of California’s 21 Spanish Catholic missions. The problem is that Serra is also documented as being an extreme and unapologetic abuser of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Coast..

Get the Story:
Simon Moya-Smith: Junipero Serra no saint (CNN 9/23)

Indeed, according to Elias Castillo, author of “A Cross of Thorns: The Enslavement of California’s Indians by the Spanish Missions,” Serra would brutally beat and whip men, women and children in order to force obedience among the Indians. Castillo also writes that Serra celebrated the demise of Indian children, referring to their deaths as a “harvest.”
More on INDIANZ.com: apologies, california, genocide, junipero serra, pope francis, religion, simon moya-smith

img_1416-58A Opinionated Man, a Korean adoptee Jason Cushman

Source: A Struggle to Feel Accepted

My adoption story received a lot of views and was a create way for me to finally pour out how I saw and felt during the course of those events in my life. It was a trying period and no one can really say they understand what I went through because there was only one Korean kid walking in those shoes. I am thankful for such support during those times, my family and mother in particular helped me to see there are reasons for living even in the darkest of hours. It is just very hard to know that when you are living those moments. I was adopted when I was 3 years old, left on the street with my sister by our mother in front of a police station in Busan, South Korea. I did not find out about the part of the story involving my sister and birth mother till I was eighteen years old and was on a trip to Korea with a group of adoptees that were also adopted through Holt International. It took me 9 years and one suicide attempt to get over it all and I can’t actually say I honestly have moved fully forward. Do you ever? I may still write more on my adoption other than the few articles I wrote on it. It would make a good novel, but sometimes you just don’t feel like reopening a door over and over.

I think in many ways blogs are windows into our hearts. We allow people to see our feelings, emotions, and sometimes our personal stories because we feel the need to share without actually physically sharing. We press that publish button and that post is sent out into the web and we half fear, half hope that someone will read it and care enough to respond. That the response back will somehow matter. That is what I hope when I publish any article on my blog and I also seek out other bloggers that feel the same way. Simply because we are unsocial in the real world, and I really wouldn’t fully label myself as unsociable but more on that later, doesn’t mean we cannot still find connections that broaden our world.


=====These two I had to share now. I will be writing more…soon…Lara Trace==============

The racism of EUGENICS

Forgotten Stories of the Eugenic Age #4, Part 1: The Short Life and Eugenic Death of Baby John Bollinger

by Natalie Oveyssi on September 24th, 2015

Book on eugenics, 1916 edition
Book on eugenics, 1916 edition

[Forgotten Stories of the Eugenic Age is a blog series exploring the lesser-known ways that eugenics affected and engaged American lives during the first half of the twentieth century.]

In November 1915, Chicago physician Harry Haiselden decided to let newborn John Bollinger die.

Baby Bollinger, as he was called in the many press reports of the time, was born paralyzed on the left side of his body, missing his left ear altogether and the ear drum of his right ear. His right cheek was connected to his shoulder, and he had a curved spine and closure of the intestinal tract. His only chance of survival was immediate surgery.

Obstetrician Climena Serviss called in the hospital’s chief surgeon, Dr. Haiselden, to consult. A firm believer in the doctrine of eugenics, he examined Baby Bollinger and arrived at the conclusion that even if surgery was successful, the child would grow up to be a mental and moral “defective” who would burden his family and society and taint the human race. Indeed, Haiselden believed that it would be morally wrong to allow the baby to live. As he later recounted, he wondered, “Would his mind be clear? Would his soul be normally alive? That I do not know, but the chances are against it.” Haiselden informed the baby’s parents that, in his estimation, the child would be better off dead. In due course, Mr. and Mrs. Bollinger came to agree.

Having made this decision, Haiselden contacted a reporter to share the story, believing that shedding light on such practices would make the case for the betterment of society through eugenics. Journalists from other newspapers latched onto the story, reporting it as one of the first cannon shots of the eugenic movement.

Haiselden was not the first prominent figure to voice the belief that certain children’s lives should not be preserved. In 1912, D. H. H. Goddard—respected eugenist, author of The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness, and coiner of the term “moron”—argued, ironically at a Philadelphia “baby saving show,” for the extermination of children with intellectual and physical disabilities who are “calculated to grow up to increase the race of thieves and paupers.” But Haiselden’s decision in the case of Baby Bollinger pushed this concept from the hypothetical realm into reality.

As newspapers printed the story, a firestorm erupted. While the baby lay in the hospital dying of starvation, calls poured in, with some people begging Haiselden to reconsider, and others urging him to remain steadfast in the course he had chosen. Threats to kidnap the child and take him elsewhere for care led the hospital to station a guard at his bedside.

When the baby finally died on November 18 at five days old, the controversy intensified. Members of the public thirsted to hear Haiselden’s reasons for refusing to operate so they could decide whether to praise his ideals or excoriate his callousness. Some took to the papers to demand that the state open an inquest to formally settle the matters of whether Baby Bollinger would have lived with operation, whether the baby was truly mental or morally “damaged,” and whether a doctor had the right to determine “defectiveness” in an infant, and, once done, decide if that baby should live or die. They wanted, too, to pass their own judgments on Baby Bollinger’s fitness to live.

Coroner Peter Hoffman had initially believed that an inquest was unlikely, since “the case is not different from many others” and “the physician knows the cause of death,” but the extensive public attention prompted police to open an official investigation. Hoffman’s office was asked to perform an autopsy, and a coroner’s jury was to determine whether Haiselden would be charged with any crime.
Six prominent Chicago-area physicians were selected for the jury and held a hearing in which they called witnesses and peppered Haiselden with questions about the baby’s health and his reasons for inaction. Haiselden explained his choices in a signed statement issued before the Coroner’s jury took up its inquiry:

I say again that it is our duty to defend ourselves and the future generations against the mentally defective we allow to grow and suffer among us, and add to our burden and our problem. . . . So let us be sensible. Let us approve of the sterilization of the insane and the defective, and of the children of habitual drunkards, when both father and mother are so. Let us reproduce ourselves in 100 per cent fashion, so that by weeding out of our undesirables we decrease their burden and ours and lay the foundation for a normal race, which would result four generations from now. Let us venerate a standard with soul and sense, instead of desecrating it with crumbling tradition and mindless sentimentality.

At the hearing, Haiselden testified that he had consulted with fifteen other physicians over the fate of Baby Bollinger, fourteen of whom had agreed with his decision. However, when pressed to give names, he could only provide two: Dr. Climena Serviss, who had initially called him for consultation, and Chicago Health Commissioner Dr. John Dill Robertson, who had publicly denounced Haiselden’s actions and who testified against him at the hearing.Haiselden further stated that he had told these fifteen physicians that if any wished to operate, he would not prevent them from doing so. They all declined his offer, he said, until one asked for permission about two hours before the baby died. Haiselden denied the request on the grounds that it was “against [his] ethics to operate on a dying person.”

Haiselden’s testimony included a series of contradictory statements. “I did not believe the life prospects of the child were good.” “He might have lived for a number of years.” “A dangerous surgical operation would have gained nothing for the child.” “Without [an operation], the baby could not live.” “I did not wish to operate lest, if it should die on the table, I should be accused of killing the baby.”

He argued that the parents had been fully informed about their baby’s health problems and had not been pressured to accept his decision. He recounted telling the father that, in his professional estimation, the baby would be disturbingly deformed, mentally and morally defective, a burden to himself and society, and doomed to a life of pain and suffering. The mother had never seen the child, and the parents had not been informed that Dr. Robertson supported an operation.  Mr. and Mrs. Bollinger had agreed to allow the doctor to treat their baby as he thought best.

He protested in his defense that it was common practice among Chicago doctors—and indeed doctors everywhere—to allow “hopelessly defective” babies to die. In fact, he said, at least one baby a day in Chicago is secretly left to die, a statement that no one at the hearing contradicted. He concluded, “If I am to be jailed, I am ready to take my medicine. My conscience is clear.”

John Dill Robertson was Haiselden’s strongest critic at the hearing. He testified that he had examined the baby, and had expected his problems to be worse than they were. Robertson thought that if the infant had received a timely operation, he would have had a chance of survival. He expressed concern about the dangerous precedent of not working to the fullest extent to save a life, and of relegating to a single doctor judgment over worthiness to live. “If our civilization has reached a stage where the life or death of infants is to be determined on the grounds of fitness,” he said, “then, like the ancient Spartans, we should establish a legal tribunal to pass upon the babies that are to live and those that are to be exposed to death.”

After the autopsy and hearing, the jury declared in a statement, “We find no evidence from the physical defects in the child that it would have become mentally or morally defective. Several of the physical defects might have been improved by plastic operations.” The jury also expressed the belief that a “prompt operation would have prolonged and perhaps saved the life of the child.”

The jury agreed that “morally and ethically, a surgeon is fully within his rights in refusing to perform any operation which his conscience will not sanction.” However, it hinted that it was uncomfortable with the idea of any one doctor making a decision to withhold a potentially lifesaving operation. It recommended that at least two doctors be consulted in such matters. In its strongest criticism of Haiselden, the jury concluded, “We believe that the physician’s highest duty is to relieve suffering and to save or prolong life.”

This was indeed the strongest formal censure Haiselden would receive; the coroner’s jury decided not to charge him.

Even after the verdict, the state of Illinois considered indicting Haiselden for criminal carelessness due to a faulty diagnosis in the Baby Bollinger case. In December, the Illinois Board of Health pursued an inquiry and examined the testimony from the inquest, but chose not to pursue further action. Haiselden had been the consulting and not the attending physician in the Bollinger case, they reasoned, and so could not be held responsible for the baby’s death.

Professional organizations issued a range of responses to the Baby Bollinger case. Before the child’s death, the Medico-Legal Society of New York passed a resolution commending Haiselden for allowing the baby to die, thus “not only saving the child misery, but saving society the responsibility of caring for it.”

On the other hand, after long deliberation, the Chicago Medical Society expelled Haiselden on March 14, 1916. Even so, the society sidestepped addressing the morality of Haiselden’s actions, and explained that their decision was based not on the doctor’s actions in the Bollinger case, but for “seeking newspaper notoriety and gaining financially” from it. As Independent magazine later observed, Haiselden’s offense, then, “at the worst is not a question of ethics at all, but merely a violation of trade union rules.”

Other organizations deliberately ignored the case. The New York Academy of Medicine held its regular meeting on the evening of December 2, two weeks after the baby’s death. Earlier that same day, another baby had died due to similar inaction from her doctors, whom some maintained had been emboldened by Haiselden’s precedent. However, the president of the organization said that it would be against the association’s rules to discuss the two cases at the meeting.

In spite of his expulsion from the Chicago Medical Society, Haiselden continued to practice at the German-American Hospital where Baby Bollinger had been born and died, and the case continued to bring him his notoriety and financial benefits in the following months and years. In fact, debate raged long after the legal and professional consequences were put to rest. And the public was soon to receive more fodder, as Haiselden’s eugenic legacy was not yet complete.

[To be continued with Part 2.]

Sources:
1. “Baby a Day Allowed to Die.” Washington Post, Nov. 21, 1915.
2. “Bollinger Baby Inquiry: Illinois Authorities May Prosecute Doctor Who Refused to Operate.” New York Times, Dec. 10, 1915.
3. “Chicago Medical Society Drops Dr. H. J. Haiselden.” Chicago Daily Tribune, Mar. 15, 1916.
4. “Clear Baby’s Doctor: Six Physicians on Coroner’s Jury Make Report.” Washington Post, Nov. 20, 1915.
5. “Clears Dr. Haiselden: Health Board Drops Charges in Baby Bollinger Case.” New York Times, Feb. 7, 1916.
6. “Death for Weak Babies Is Opposed by Medical Men of the Capital.” Washington Post, Jun. 3, 1912.
7. “Defective Babe Dies as Decreed.” New York Times, Nov. 18, 1915.
8. “Dispute Doctor Who Let Baby Die.” New York Times, Nov. 20, 1915.
9. “Dr. Haiselden Called Before Medical Body.” Chicago Daily Tribune, Dec. 14, 1915
10. “Dr. Haiselden Expelled: Bollinger Baby’s Doctor Dropped by Chicago Medical Society.” Washington Post, Mar. 15, 1916
11. “Dr. Haiselden Is Expelled.” New York Times, Mar. 15, 1916.
12. “Dr. Haiselden to Face State Board Inquiry.” Chicago Daily Tribune, Nov. 24, 1915.
13. “Hurrah for Dr. Holt: Dr. Haiselden Endorses Action of New York Specialist.” New York Times, Nov. 25, 1915.
14. “Jury Clears, Yet Condemns, Dr. Haiselden” Chicago Daily Tribune, Nov. 20, 1915.
15. “Jury of Surgeons Studies Babe’s Case.” New York Times, Nov. 19, 1915.
16. “Justify Doctor’s Act: Chicago Officials Hold Autopsy Over Bollinger Baby.” Washington Post, Nov. 19, 1915.
17. “May Prosecute Doctor: Movement in Chicago to Accuse Haiselden Because of Baby’s Death.” Washington Post, Nov. 24, 1915.
18. “Medico-Legal Society of New York Commends Dr. Haiselden’s Stand.” Washington Post, Nov. 18, 1915.
19. “Might Kill Baby to Use the Knife.” New York Times, Nov. 26, 1915.
20. “New-Born Cripple to Be Left to Die.” New York Times, Nov. 25, 1915.
21. “Physician Is Sustained in Baby’s Death.” San Francisco Chronicle, Nov. 20, 1915.
22. “Roberts Baby Dies Without Operation.” New York Times, Dec. 3, 1915.
23. “State Opens Inquiry: Illinois Officials Takes Up Bollinger Baby’s Case.” New York Times, Nov. 25, 1915.
24. “Surgeon Lets Little Child Die When Knife Could Have Saved It.” Washington Post, Nov. 18, 1915.
25. “Won’t Let Malformed Baby Die Despite the Wish of Its Parents.” Washington Post, Nov. 25, 1915.

Previously on Biopolitical Times:

 Image via Flikr.

Identity, Indians and THE MIX

tacosAs Adoptees we need to be flexible, open to the new, to synchronicities, to unlikely possibilities and to seeing the extraordinary opportunities we have, to deal with the losses, the traumas of adoption, to be who we want to be.  Identity, that ‘thing’ we have taken from us in adoption which is replaced by a new identity invented by our adopters, is not a fixed point in our lives. Identity is ours to create, we can be whoever we want to be, no matter who we were told we were. – Von Hughes (on Lost Daughters)

 

By Lara Trace Hentz

Identity? Oh yeah, baby. It’s so vast, so incredibly vast. In my new book Becoming I list some of my grandmothers (the ones who gave me blood and ancestry) because some are immigrants and some are Indigenous. I have so much interest in them, I can barely contain my emotions of enthusiasm and happiness that I finally know some of their names!

My cousin Cathy was asking me why some of our relatives hid the fact they are Indian. Well the past few posts I have on this blog might be a good indication. Savages? Not able to vote? Own land? Herded to concentration camps/reservations?

Cathy’s grandmother Bessie and my grandmother Lona are sisters – her grandmother claimed their mother (Mary Frances Morris-Harlow) was not Indian. I didn’t meet my grandma Lona. Yet Bessie’s father always said his mother was Indian and told his children and grandchildren.

My own dad told me his grandma Mary Frances was Cherokee. (We also have Shawnee ancestry.)

But how could a Cherokee/Shawnee be in Illinois?

After invasion, when colonies became the United States of America, Native Americans were very aware they were being denied basic civil rights. I know many readers are history teachers or history buffs, so you already know about the Cherokee Trail of Tears, etc.  Some of my ancestors were in Tennessee and Kentucky then were forced on the trail. Some made it as far as Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas and stopped. Why? Because if they married white men, or married mixed-blood men who didn’t claim they are Indian, that meant they had a future.  If they had family already in Illinois that could also be their salvation!

I have many ancestors who lived and died in Pana, and that part of Illinois.  Where Illinois meets Kentucky was another Trail of Tears.  Where southern Illinois meets Missouri is the Trail of Tears State Park.  Illinois, particularly south-central Illinois is filled with street names like Nokomis, Pocahantas, Mowequa, Powhatan, Chillicothe, and many more. I do not believe this is mere coincidence. Many Indians in the East were moving and migrating as more and more colonists were encroaching – and somehow enough (mixed) Indians were in Illinois and enough settled in Illinois, enough to have an influence on place names. (The last time I drove through Illinois, my jaw dropped at all the Indian names!)

  • Illinois is an Algonquin word. Illinois – from the French rendering of an Algonquian (perhaps Miami) word apparently meaning “s/he speaks normally” (c.f. Miami ilenweewa),[13] from Proto-Algonquian *elen-, “ordinary” + -wē, “to speak”,[14][15] referring to the Illiniwek.
  • Chicago – derived from the French rendering of a Miami-Illinois word for a type of wild onion
  • Peoria – named after the Peoria Tribe which previously lived in the area
  • The name “Pana” is derived from the American Indian tribe, the Pawnee. Pawnee became “pani” or “slave” in the French patois or creole that developed in Illinois. This evolved into “Pana”,[3] now pronounced, however, [ˈpejnə].

Though I have not researched this, many mounds are also in this area! Many were plowed down but thankfully some still exist. Cahokia Mounds is located in Collinsville, Illinois off Interstates 55/70 and 255. My Miq’mac friend Alice Azure wrote a book about her visits to these ancient sacred mounds.

Why would Indians settle in Illinois?

Some were already there but during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the U.S. government attempted to control the travel of all Native Americans off the Indian reservations.  Since Native Americans did not obtain U.S. citizenship until 1924, they were considered wards of the state and were denied various basic rights, including the right to travel.[WIKI 30] The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) discouraged off-reservation activities, including the right to hunt, fish, or visit other tribes.  As a result, the BIA instituted a “pass system” designed to control movement of the Indians. This system required Indians living on reservations to obtain a pass from an Indian agent before they could leave the reservation.[WIKI 31]

If I were Indian in the late 1800s, forced to walk hundreds of miles, I’d settle down in Illinois and find a nice man, marry and have my kids. Better than moving to Indian Territory/Oklahoma reservations where you couldn’t leave without permission and a pass.

So I will continue with my family research and try to find more of my grandmother’s stories, if they exist on paper. (I am grateful to have their names!)

I decided to start a brand new e-magazine THE MIX, so more of these vast and varied family stories can be collected and published.

Salish child
A Salish Native American child in 1910
Enlarge this image

Congress Granted Citizenship to All Native Americans Born in the U.S.
June 2, 1924

Native Americans have long struggled to retain their culture. Until 1924, Native Americans were not citizens of the United States. Many Native Americans had, and still have, separate nations within the U.S. on designated reservation land. But on June 2, 1924, Congress granted citizenship to all Native Americans born in the U.S. Yet even after the Indian Citizenship Act, some Native Americans weren’t allowed to vote because the right to vote was governed by state law. Until 1957, some states barred Native Americans from voting.

 

If we weren’t citizens, what were we? …Lara

 

The original inhabitants of the area that is now Illinois included:


About Our Maps
*The Chickasaw tribe
*The Dakota Sioux tribe
*The Ho-Chunk tribe (Winnebago)
*The Illinois tribe (Illini)
*The Miami tribe
*The Shawnee tribe

 

Other Indian tribes that migrated into Illinois after Europeans arrived:

*The Delaware tribe
*The Kickapoo tribe
*The Ottawa tribe
*The Potawatomi tribe
*The Sac and Fox tribes
*The Wyandot tribe

There are no federally recognized Indian tribes in Illinois today.

The Indian tribes of Illinois are not extinct, but like many other native tribes, they were forced to move to Indian reservations in Oklahoma by the American government. You can find their present-day locations by clicking on the tribal links above.

What’s better than free? A History of New York

FREE AUDIOBOOK: HERE

Knickerbocker’s History of New York, Vol. 1

Washington IRVING (1783 – 1859)

Washington Irving, an author, biographer, historian, and diplomat, completed his first major work, a satire of contemporary local history and politics entitled A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Diedrich Knickerbocker in 1809. Prior to its publication, Irving started a promotional hoax (not unlike some modern-day publicity stunts?) by placing fake missing persons advertisements in local newspapers asking for help in locating Diedrich Knickerbocker. As a continuation of the hoax, Irving also published a notice purported to be written by the proprietor of the hotel where Knickbocker was staying, in which he threatened to publish a manuscript “left behind” by Knickerbocker if the hotel bill was not paid. From “The Author’s Apology”: “The main object of my work, in fact, had a bearing wide from the sober aim of history, but one which, I trust, will meet with some indulgence from poetic minds. It was to embody the traditions of our city in an amusing form; to illustrate its local humors, customs and peculiarities; to clothe home scenes and places and familiar names with those imaginative and whimsical associations so seldom met with in our new country, but which live like charms and spells about the cities of the old world, binding the heart of the native inhabitant to his home.” – (Summary by lubee930 from the text and adapted from Wikipedia)

Genre(s): Satire, Early Modern, Language: English

[With all the doom and gloom, missing planes and explosions in Harlem, it’s nice to disappear into a good book, even an audio book…Visit LibriVox for more free audio books… Lara/Trace]

1722, Massachusetts: Hunting Savage Indians for bounty

Redskins, Posted on February 2, 2014 by

In 1722, Samuel Shuttle, the governor of Massachusetts, declared total war on the Abenaki. Part of the concern of the English colonists was the presence of Jesuits among the Abenaki. The colonial Puritans were vehemently anti-Catholic and particularly anti-Jesuit. Father Sebastian Rasles had strongly encouraged the Abenaki to defend their lands and themselves against the English colonists.

The English colonists viewed North America as a vast wilderness, ignoring the fact that the park-like environment they encountered was, in fact, carefully managed by Native Americans. They viewed the Indians as savage nomads, ignoring the fact that Native agriculture had fed them; ignoring the fact that Indian people lived in permanent villages and raised a variety of crops. The English felt that it was their God-given duty to “tame” the wilderness by exterminating all animals they didn’t like and for this reason they encouraged the killing of coyotes, wolves, and, of course, Indians.

To encourage the killing of these “wild” and “dangerous” animals, the colonial government established a bounty system. To get paid the bounty, hunters had to provide proof of the kill: for this they submitted coyote skins, wolf skins, and red skins (usually the scalps or heads of the Indians they had killed). Some colonists earned their livings through bounties.

In January 1725, Captain John Lovewell organized a militia group to hunt Indians. With the bounty set at £100, Lovewell and his militia members saw killing Indians for the bounty as a way to get rich. In his book The Forgotten America, Cormac O’Brien describes Lovewell’s decision to hunt Indians this way: “A farmer with little to do in the winter but fight off boredom, he decided to raise a company of volunteers, go off into the woods, and cash in on the government’s offer of scalp money.”

The group set out to attack the Abenaki village of Pigwacket (near present-day Fryeburg, Maine), but they changed plans when they came across the tracks of an Indian party heading south. They followed the tracks and came across and Indian camp.

At about 2:00 AM on February 20, the sixty-two English bounty-hunters formed a semi-circle around the sleeping camp. Lovewell fired first and the others followed. One surviving Abenaki man jumped up and began to run and the English set their attack dogs on him. The English stormed the camp, clubbing to death any who had survived the volley of bullets and then scalping all of them. They then took the Abenaki guns (which were of French manufacture and considered quite valuable) and other souvenirs.

When the militia arrived in Boston, they proudly displayed ten scalps which they hoisted on poles for all to see. They were greeted as heroes. They were paid £1,000 by the General Court and they sold their booty for another £70. At this time, this was a lot of money.

Having found bounty hunting for “red skins,” Lovewell decided to raise yet another militia and to enrich himself even further. By spring, Lovewell had signed up 46 men for another bounty expedition hunting Indians for profit and fun. Among those who joined the expedition was Jonathan Fry, a twenty-year-old graduate of the Harvard Divinity School. Fry was to be the group’s chaplain, seeking God’s help in their slaughter of Indians.

Once again, the initial target was the Abenaki village of Pigwacket which was believed to be friendly to the hated Catholic Jesuits. They set out in April, in good weather. On Sunday, May 9, just a short distance from an Indian village, Fry called the men together for a prayer service. The service, however, was interrupted by a gunshot. The English rushed to the shore of a pond where they saw a lone Indian hunting ducks.

Lovewell told his men to leave their blankets and gear so that they could move in quickly to kill the Indian. They quickly surprised the hunter who was carrying some dead ducks and two muskets. The hunter fired one of the muskets, which had been loaded with shot for duck hunting, and wounded two of the English militia. Fry and another man returned fire, killing the hunter. Fry, the group’s chaplain, then scalped him so that he could claim the bounty.

While the English were busy killing and scalping the Abenaki duck hunter, a party of Abenaki under the leadership of Paugus, a Mohawk who had become an Abenaki war leader, were in canoes. When they heard the gunfire, they put ashore and happened to find the English camp. They concealed themselves and waited for the English to return.

The English returned to their camp, basking in the victory over the lone hunter. As they became aware of the fact that their blankets and gear were missing, the Abenaki opened fire. As the battle raged, the surviving English took refuge on a small peninsula on the pond. From here their accurate rifle fire could hold off the Abenaki.

Among those killed in the battle were the English leader Lovewell, the Abenaki leader Paugus, and the Abenaki spiritual leader Wahwah. Twenty of the English bounty hunters survived.

The Battle of Saco Pond, as it was later called, became glorified in American history and literature. In 1820, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote “The Battle of Lovewell’s Pond” and in 1824, the Reverend Thomas Cogswell wrote “Song of Lovewell’s Fight.” In the histories and in the literature glorifying the battle, however, the initial cause—hunting Indians for their bounty—was generally omitted.

America’s Slaves Were More Valuable Than All Its Industrial Capital Combined

http://www.slate.com/blogs/moneybox/2013/07/18/america_s_slave_wealth.html

Thomas Piketty and Gabriel Zucman have a new paper out (PDF) about the historical evolution of wealth in a number of different prominent countries, and it features this chart for the United States that really drives home the amazing reality of America’s antebellum slave economy. The “human capital” consisting of black men and women held as chattel in the states of the south was more valuable than all the industrial and transportation capital (“other domestic capital”) of the country in the first half of the nineteenth century. When you consider that the institution of slavery was limited to specific subset of the country, you can see that in the region where it held sway slave wealth was wealth.

In their discussion, the point Piketty and Zucman make about this is that slave wealth was the functional equivalent of land wealth in a country where agricultural land was abundant. The typical European wealth-holding pattern was of an economic elite composed of wealthy landowners in a environment of scarce usable land. In America, land was plentiful since you could steal it from Native Americans. That should could have led to an egalitarian distribution of wealth, but instead an alternative agrarian elite emerged that did happen to own large stocks of land but whose wealthy was primarily composed of owning the human beings who worked the land rather than owning the land itself.

Source: http://www.slate.com/blogs/moneybox/2013/07/18/america_s_slave_wealth.html

Wealth in America

beware these men

Floyd Red Crow Westerman
Floyd Red Crow Westerman (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

There is an ancient Indian saying:

Something lives only as long as the last person who remembers it. My people have come to trust memory over history. Memory, like fire, is radiant & immutable while history serves only those who seek to control it, those who douse the flame of memory in order to put out the dangerous fire of truth. Beware these men for they are dangerous & unwise.
Their false history is written in the blood of those who might remember & seek the truth.
 – Floyd ‘Red Crow’ Westerman

[Shared via my Dear Bruth, Gary Littleworth, from Teresa Anahuy
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/FirstPeoplesNews%5D

End it: Shine a Light on Slavery, Join us on April 9th

On April 9th, Help us Shine A Light On Slavery.

About END IT Movement

We are here to shine a light on slavery. No more bondage. No more sex trafficking. No more child laborers. No more, starting now.

Slavery is Wrong.

You know it. We know it. As a country, we’ve officially known it since 1863. But here’s something you might not know — Slavery still exists. We want every man, woman and child to know that there are 27 million men, women and children, just like them, living in the shadows. In brothels. In factories. In Quarries. Working as slaves. In 161 countries. Including our own. We are here to shine a light on slavery. No more bondage. No more sex trafficking. No more child laborers. No more, starting now.

Read about each and their mission under Coalition Partners. Visit:  www.enditmovement.com  #ENDITMOVEMENT

Slave traders make $32 Billion last year

slave traders$32 Billion profits in the Slave Trade…that is why it is so difficult to combat…and why we must not succumb to apathy and think there is nothing we can do…there is always something we can do….Lara

The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery

English: Ban Ki-moon 日本語: 潘基文
English: Ban Ki-moon 日本語: 潘基文 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

International Day for the Abolition of Slavery 2 December

Today, governments, civil  society and the private sector must unite to eradicate all contemporary forms  of slavery. … Together, let us do our utmost for the millions of victims throughout the world who are held in slavery and deprived  of their human rights and dignity – Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon Message for the International Day for the Abolition of Slavery  on 2 December 2012

The International Day for the Abolition of  Slavery, 2 December, marks the date of the adoption, by the General Assembly,  of the United Nations Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons  and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (resolution 317(IV) of 2  December 1949).

Quilt codes tell how slaves navigated the Underground Railroad

English: Whole map of the underground railroad...
English: Whole map of the underground railroad. Nederlands: Een kaart van routes van de Underground Railroad (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

By Dave Mistich – West Virginia Public Broadcasting

October 8, 2012 · It’s difficult to imagine the hardships that 19th century African American slaves endured traveling the Underground Railroad, risking their lives with hopes to one day be free. Of the many fascinating tactics they used along the way, the most visually striking is the secret codes that were sewn onto quilts and hung outside to give warning or tell them the area was safe.

“We’re standing in front of the Bear Paw Trail quilt,” said Teresa Kemp.

She is standing in front of an impressive quilt with blue squares and triangles formed together to produce shapes that look similar to bear paws scattered across a white background. That quilt is one of dozens in the exhibit that depicts secret codes used by slaves to help one another along the Underground Railroad.

Read the rest of the story at: http://www.wvpubcast.org/newsarticle.aspx?id=26884