Blog Bonus: Emvpanyv: One who tells a story | hanging re-enactment | Go Fighting Hamsters! | Trump Termination

Emvpanyv: One who tells a story (MNN File Photo)

Editorial – “Go Fighting Hamsters!” Gary Fife, Radio Communications Specialist

Editor’s Note: The following column contains strong language.

OKMULGEE, Okla.— Ever notice the phrase “federally recognized tribes” when it comes to identifying who is and who isn’t an Indian. If your tribe is not on the list, published by the BIA— (some say ‘Boss Indians Around’) in the Federal Register, then it could mean the differences between receiving services or not, funding or not, having a CDIB (Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood) card or even entering art shows.

Well, the BIA finally got around to publishing that list, like they’re supposed to according to law.  567.  That’s the number of tribes having this political (political, not racial) relationship with the U.S. government.  Now, if you are wondering where all these tribes are, a good many of them are Alaska Native Villages, recognized as local units of government—tribes.  From the Absentee Shawnee of Oklahoma, to the Yupiit of Andreafski in Alaska, to the Zuni Tribe of New Mexico, we’re all good Indians, right?

Here’s what the feds said: “This notice publishes the current list of 567 tribal entities recognized and eligible for funding and services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) by virtue of their status as Indian Tribes.  The list is updated from the notice published on May 4, 2016 (81 FR 26826).” And…if just have to see for yourself:

Publication Date: 01/17/2017

Agencies: Bureau of Indian Affairs

Document Type: Notice

Document Citation: 82 FR 4915

Page: 4915-4920 (6 pages)

Agency/Docket Number: 178A2100DD/AAKC001030/A0A501010.999900253G (that’s a long one, huh?)

Document Number: 2017-00912

I guess if your tribe ain’t on it, you’re outta luck.

The emotional battle of an Indian child’s parental custody like Baby Veronica won’t be repeated, according to national news sources.  Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court turned down an effort to hear a case involving a Native American girl who was ordered removed from a California foster home and reunited with relatives in Utah. “Lexi,” who is part Choctaw, was 6-years-old when she was taken from her foster home near Los Angeles under terms of the Indian Child Welfare Act.

From the “I Can’t Believe This Happened” category:

“Public hanging of Native man re-enactment sparks outrage.”

The Historical Society of Hanna’s Town, Pennsylvania actors performed a public execution re-enactment of the hanging of Mamachtaga to an enthusiastic crowd.

‘Indian Country Today’ reported Jan. 7, the Westmoreland County Historical Society re-enacted the 1785 public hanging of the Native man at the town.

The Indian news outlet reported for the first time in the society’s history, the celebration coordinators chose to re-enact a public hanging, this time of Mamachtaga, a Delaware man convicted of murder in 1785.  A video of the public hanging was posted on YouTube June 26, 2016.  The video shows several children in the audience watching as men dressed in colonial dress hang a red-face painted ‘Mamachtaga.’ Several people, presumably re-enactors, shouted comments such as, “Dirty no good Indian deserves to be hung,” and “Murderers, that’s all that they are.”

Several people expressed outrage over the video in Facebook comments. “This is horrible,” commented one. “What is wrong with people? Letting their kids watch this s***! Nothing like family bigotry,” was also commented.

Many people have contacted both the Westmoreland County Historical Society and the volunteer group who participated in the re-enactment to let them know of their opposition to such depictions. ‘Indian Country Today’ says, “According to them, the issue of race did not enter into the re-enactment.  Asked if the group would have done a similar performance if the criminal had been African American they said, ‘Yes.’ “Although the matter is under discussion, the committee doubted that the hanging would be included in next year’s Frontier Court Re-enactment Days celebrations.

Let’s hope not or what? The public hanging of Native men is still a spectator sport?

Let’s change the subject and mood.

Remember last year when I mentioned that a ritzy East Coast college was changing its mascot? “Lord Jeff” had been the mascot for Amherst College in Massachusetts. In the 1700s, he was the guy that suggested using smallpox infected blankets on the local Native people to get rid of them.  The national mood to change sports team’s mascots motivated the school to make the change and several new ideas came to mind.  The Amherst Facebook page reported in December a big list of names was submitted, and then pared down to about 30.  One of them (and my favorite) was the ‘Hamsters.’

Could you imagine at some athletic competition when the team makes its appearance, it’s led by a squad of beautiful ‘Hamster-ette’ cheerleaders and they come out of a big HabiTrail plastic tube?

Nibble em’, nibble em’. Go Fighting Hamsters!

Tafvmpuce! Wild onion season’s not too far off! Ready for the dinners?

Hompvks Ce.

Source: Emvpanyv: One who tells a story – Mvskoke Media

[Shortly after the posting of this article on Indian Country Today, the original video noted in this story was taken off of YouTube due to the public outcry.  Also, Chief Chester L. Brooks  of the Delaware Tribe of Indians located in Bartlesville, OK issued a strongly worded request for the video to be taken down, and the letter, which demanded immediate action from the Westmoreland County Historical Society of Pennsylvania to stop the reenactment, and expressed the tribe’s outrage that the historical society would go beyond the bounds of decency, also demanded an apology and that the removal of the video should be completed within ten days. READ THIS ENTIRE ARTICLE.]

List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous People …

Colleges and universities

Secondary schools

***

Federally recognized tribes should brace for possible termination policy under Trump

Whether we like it or not, Saglutupiaġataq (“the compulsive liar” in Iñupiatun) is now president of the United States and Republicans control Congress. Federally recognized Alaska Native and American Indian tribes should brace for the worst, including the possibility that Congress may move to terminate federally recognized tribes.

https://sokokisojourn.wordpress.com/2017/03/24/federally-recognized-tribes-should-brace-for-possible-termination-policy-under-trump/comment-page-1/#comment-436

Indian Removals and Reservations

In the 19th century, the incessant westward expansion of the United States incrementally compelled large numbers of Native Americans to resettle further west, often by force, almost always reluctantly. Native Americans believed this forced relocation illegal, given the Hopewell Treaty of 1785. Under President Andrew Jackson, United States Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which authorized the President to conduct treaties to exchange Native American land east of the Mississippi River for lands west of the river.

As many as 100,000 Native Americans relocated to the West as a result of this Indian Removal policy. In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary and many Native Americans did remain in the East. In practice, great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties. The most egregious violation, the Trail of Tears, was removal of the Cherokee by President Jackson to Indian Territory.[78]

Native Americans and U.S. Citizenship

In 1817, the Cherokee became the first Native Americans recognized as U.S. citizens. Under Article 8 of the 1817 Cherokee treaty, “Upwards of 300 Cherokees (Heads of Families) in the honest simplicity of their souls, made an election to become American citizens”.[79][80]

Factors establishing citizenship included:

  1. Treaty provision (as with the Cherokee)
  2. Registration and land allotment under the Dawes Act of February 8, 1887
  3. Issuance of Patent in Fee simple
  4. Adopting Habits of Civilized Life
  5. Minor Children
  6. Citizenship by Birth
  7. Becoming Soldiers and Sailors in the U.S. Armed Forces
  8. Marriage to a U.S. citizen
  9. Special Act of Congress.

After the American Civil War, the Civil Rights Act of 1866 states, “that all persons born in the United States, and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States”.[81]

Indian Appropriations Act of 1871

In 1871 Congress added a rider to the Indian Appropriations Act ending United States recognition of additional Native American tribes or independent nations, and prohibiting additional treaties.[82]

Education and Indian boarding schools

After the Indian wars in the late 19th century, the United States established Native American boarding schools, initially run primarily by or affiliated with Christian missionaries.[83] At this time American society thought that Native American children needed to be acculturated to the general society. The boarding school experience often proved traumatic to Native American children, who were forbidden to speak their native languages, taught Christianity and denied the right to practice their native religions, and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their Native American identities.[84][85][86]

Since the rise of self-determination for Native Americans, they have generally emphasized education of their children at schools near where they live. In addition, many federally recognized tribes have taken over operations of such schools and added programs of language retention and revival to strengthen their cultures. Beginning in the 1970s, tribes have also founded colleges at their reservations, controlled, and operated by Native Americans, to educate their young for jobs as well as to pass on their cultures.

American Indian Boarding Schools:

Non-reservation boarding schools

In 1634, Fr. Andrew White of the Society of Jesus established a mission in what is now the state of Maryland, and the purpose of the mission, stated through an interpreter to the chief of an Indian tribe there, was “to extend civilization and instruction to his ignorant race, and show them the way to heaven.”[7] The mission’s annual records report that by 1640, a community had been founded which they named St. Mary’s, and the Indians were sending their children there “to be educated among the English.”[8] This included the daughter of the Pascatoe Indian chief Tayac, which exemplifies not only a school for Indians, but either a school for girls, or an early co-ed school. The same records report that in 1677, “a school for humanities was opened by our Society in the centre of [Maryland], directed by two of the Fathers; and the native youth, applying themselves assiduously to study, made good progress. Maryland and the recently established school sent two boys to St. Omer who yielded in abilities to few Europeans, when competing for the honour of being first in their class. So that not gold, nor silver, nor the other products of the earth alone, but men also are gathered from thence to bring those regions, which foreigners have unjustly called ferocious, to a higher state of virtue and cultivation.”[9]

Harvard College had an Indian College on its campus in the mid-1600s, supported by the English Society for Propagation of the Gospel. Its few Indian students came from New England, at a time when higher education was very limited for all classes and colleges were more similar to today’s high schools. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck, “from the Wampanoag…did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period”.[10] In early years, other Indian schools were created by local communities, as with the Indian school in Hanover, New Hampshire in 1769, which gradually developed into Dartmouth College. Other schools were created in the East, where Indian reservations were less common than they became in the late nineteenth century in western states.

Chiricahua Apaches Four Months After Arriving at Carlisle. Undated photograph taken at Carlisle Indian Industrial School.

West of the Mississippi, schools near Indian settlements and on reservations were first founded by religious missionaries, who believed they could extend education and Christianity to Native Americans. Some of their efforts were part of the progressive movement after the Civil War. As Native Americans were forced onto reservations following the Indian Wars, missionaries founded additional schools with boarding facilities, to accommodate students who lived too far to attend on a daily basis.

The Carlisle Indian Industrial School, founded by the US Army officer Richard Henry Pratt in 1879 at a former military installation, became a model for others established by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Pratt said in a speech in 1892, “A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him and save the man.”[11] Pratt professed “assimilation through total immersion.”[11] He conducted a “social experiment” on Apache prisoners of war at a fort in Florida.[12] He cut their long hair, put them in uniforms, forced them to learn English, and subjected them to strict military protocols.[12] He had arranged for the education of some of the young Indian men at the Hampton Institute, a historically black college, after he had supervised them as prisoners at a fort in Florida.

At the prison, he made efforts to have the Indians taught English and United States culture, while giving them leeway to govern themselves. From seeing the progress of both his younger prisoners and the ones who attended Hampton, he came to believe that removing Indians from their native culture could result in their successful assimilation into the majority culture of the United States. As at the Hampton Institute, he included in the Carlisle curriculum vocational training for boys and domestic science for girls, including chores around the school and producing goods for market. They also produced a newspaper, had a well-regarded chorus and orchestra, and developed sports programs. The vocational training reflected the administration’s understanding of skills needed at most reservations, which were located in rural areas, and reflected a society still based on agriculture. In the summer, students often lived with local farm families and townspeople to continue their immersion in European-American culture, and provide labor at low cost to the families. Carlisle and its curriculum became the model for the Bureau of Indian Affairs; by 1902 there were 25 federally funded non-reservation schools in 15 states and territories, with a total enrollment of over 6,000 students. Federal legislation required Native American children to be educated. Parents had to authorize their children’s attendance at boarding schools, but sometimes officials used coercion to gain a quota of students from any given reservation.[13]

As the model of boarding schools was adopted more widely by the US government, many Native American children were separated from their families and tribes when they were sent or sometimes taken to boarding schools far from their home reservations. These schools ranged from those similar to the federal Carlisle Indian Industrial School, which became a model for BIA-run schools; to the many schools sponsored by religious denominations.

In that period, when students arrived at the boarding schools, their lives usually altered dramatically. They were given short haircuts (a source of shame for boys of many tribes), uniforms, and English names; sometimes these were based on their own, other times they were assigned at random, and sometimes children chose new names. They were not allowed to speak their own languages, even between each other, and they were expected to attend church services and encouraged to convert to Christianity. Discipline was stiff in many schools (as it was in families and other areas of society), and it often included chores and punishments.[12]

The following is a quote from Anna Moore regarding the Phoenix Indian School:

If we were not finished [scrubbing the dining room floors] when the 8 a.m. whistle sounded, the dining room matron would go around strapping us while we were still on our hands and knees.[14]

The 1928 Meriam Report noted that infectious disease was often widespread at the schools due to insufficient funding for meals providing good nutrition, overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions (an element shared by many towns in the early 20th century) and students weakened by overwork. The report said that death rates for Native American students were six and a half times higher than for other ethnic groups.[14]

John Kane on Inherent Sovereignty: Who decides who is Indian

b6432-img_0461(Jan. 20, 2014) – John Kane, Mohawk activist and national commentator on Native issues, was a featured speaker Jan. 16, at “Who Decides You’re Real? Fixing the Federal Recognition Process,” a two-day conference at Arizona State University in Tempe. The conference was hosted by the Indian Legal Clinic at the Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law at Arizona State University.

Kane was one of four experts speaking on a panel addressing “Inherent Sovereignty.” The panel moderator was Frank Ettawageshik, former chairman, Waganakising Odawa – Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians. Other panelists included Jack Trope, executive director, Association of American Indian Affairs and John Norwood, tribal councilman, principal justice of the Tribal Supreme Court, Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Tribal Nation.

Kane’s presentation, which came at the conclusion of the panel, drew a standing ovation from the audience. His remarks can be found at the 1:27 mark at http://mediasite.law.asu.edu/media/SilverlightPlayer/Default.aspx?peid=824c4937ac504f03abf9fe96c2757d811d.

 Excepts from Kane’s remarks follow.

 Inherent sovereignty is a unique concept. Throughout the world, especially in the dominant European world, sovereignty was the biggest lie ever told. It was where “God” bestowed ruling authority upon a certain family — a crown. Biggest lie ever told..

 

OUR sovereignty — our right to life and our freedom — is a product of Creation. When we do an opening [Ohenton Karihwatehkwen] in my homeland, in the territory of Haudenosaunee, we do a whole acknowledgement about relationships. We start by acknowledging the people, everybody who is here. We acknowledge the ground to the stars. We talk about relationships. The problem with the federal recognition process is it’s all about ONE relationship between a specific Native people — we say the Ohnkwe Ohnwe, the original people, forever in both directions, that’s our word — and the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

 

I’m not recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. I’m not a tribe, band or nation of Indians subordinate to the laws or customs of the U.S. There is no Mohawk Nation recognized by the BIA. There is the St. Regis Tribe. And they actually threw the word Mohawk in there not long ago, so they’re the St. Regis Tribe of Mohawks. But we’ve seen this happen to all of us. Now, it’s the Oneida Tribe of Wisconsin, the Oneida Indian Nation of New York, the Seneca Nation of Indians, and the Tonawanda Band of Senecas. Somewhere along the line somebody drew a border right through Kanienkehaka territory. Part of this border is the St. Lawrence River but most of my people live on either side of this imaginary line. So the observation about the non-federally recognized people asserting more sovereignty than perhaps the federally recognized ones?  I think we qualify for that because we don’t let that stop us.  You will never see us apply. You will never see the Kanienkehaka submit a petition for federal recognition.

“Now I understand the value of that [federal recognition]. And let’s face it. The 800-pound gorilla in the room is gaming — and federal funding. But we need to do more for each other. What’s missing in the declaration that will be presented later and signed [at this meeting] is trade and commerce among each other. We need to have THESE kinds of relationships with one another. THAT is the definition of sovereignty, of sustainability, and not what federal funding we can get or how many casinos we can operate. Now I’m not condemning gaming but let’s be clear — gaming is not possible because of IGRA. And it’s not possible because of Cabazon. It is possible because of sovereignty. All Cabazon did was to recognize what we already knew. Of course it paved the way for non-Native people to become our vendors and opened the door for state governments to get into our businesses. That’s what IGRA did. But it also opened the floodgates to a whole lot of people anxious to get a casino. Federal recognition is the pathway for that.

“We need to start recognizing each other. When I talk about our Ohenton Karihwatehkwen– that opening we do – we talk about relationships. But if we’re not talking about these relationships, and if all we’re talking about is a petition that ends up on the desk of someone at the BIA, we’d better start thinking about decolonizing our minds.”

“We need to rethink the definition of federal recognition because I’m not a ‘tribe, band or nation of Indians’ subordinate to the laws and customs of the U.S. I acknowledge them but they need to acknowledge us. The battle that rages even among us in this whole process is the debate about how the federally-recognized tribes deal with non-recognized tribes. That’s a whole other challenge. We need to be standing with each other. Whether the BIA wants to recognize any of us or not, we need to make sure that we recognize each other. We need to be standing beside one another and de-colonizing our minds.

John is an op-ed columnist for “The Two Row Times,” a weekly news publication that reaches the Ontario-wide Native market and Haudenosaunee communities in the U.S. John publishes the Native Pride blog, which can be found at www.letstalknativepride.blogspot.com.
 

“How Much Have We Spent on Native Americans?”

Slate Vault: 1894 Federal Report —rePosted from Turtle Talk

Here:

CostsOfIndiansFinal2.jpg.CROP.original-original

The 693 page report is here.

By Lara/Trace,

This report is interesting to see how America’s “land grab” was progressing. Taking land was how they built their war chest to wage more war against Indians! These government guys thought they were so clever.

It was in December 1890 that the final Indian War (really a massacre) was waged in Wounded Knee. By then over 400 peace treaties were signed with promises made to care for Indian people sent to reservations. Many actually starved, froze or were killed by germ warfare using smallpox in blankets. No one really expected Indian people to survive.

Native Americans, still the most impoverished people in North America, still live under Third World conditions, long after we gave up traditional ways of subsistence (hunting and gathering) to move to “grass prisons.”  We then became wards of these governments. We received parcels of waste land. They promised food rations and commodities as welfare, to assimilate us they promised education and to protect our health they established Indian Health Services (IHS). All of this is dictated and managed by the BIA or Bureau of Indian Affairs – once part of the War Department of the United States.

[WIKIPEDIA: First called the Office of Indian Affairs, the agency was created as a division in 1824 within the War Department. In 1832 Congress established the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In 1849 Indian Affairs was transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior. The bureau was renamed as BIA, Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1947.]

The loss of land, life and culture is not something we could ever measure in monetary terms.  It will not be possible to repay these losses with money. Sovereignty, dealing directly with the federal government as a sovereign tribal nation, is another matter entirely. Indians won in the Cobell lawsuit and will be repaid milllions of dollars this year. Some tribes are already buying up lands lost in bad treaties.

Until all our tribal nations rebuild our distinct communities separate from the colonizer, and include citizens we choose and recognize, and dispel the blood quantum requirements, we will be the wards of this colonizer.

If we don’t rebuild on our terms, eventually Indians will disappear (at least on paper.)

Wiki: The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior. It is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American Tribes and Alaska Natives.  The Bureau of Indian Affairs is one of two bureaus under the jurisdiction of the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs: the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Indian Education, which provides education services to approximately 48,000 Native Americans. The BIA’s responsibilities once included providing health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives. In 1954 that function was legislatively transferred to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, now known as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, where it has remained to this day as the Indian Health Service.